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Mimic Antagonize or Inhibit IGR Insect Growth Regulators Modes of Action

Mimic Antagonize or Inhibit IGR Insect Growth Regulators Modes of Action


Mimic Antagonize or Inhibit IGR Insect Growth Regulators Modes of Action
Mimic Antagonize or Inhibit IGR Insect Growth Regulators Modes of Action

Insect growth regulators IGR are not insecticides they do not kill the insects directly.

IGRs focuses on the endocrine system.

They mimic the action of hormones to disrupt the molting process and modify growth of insect or mite pests interfering with the development

The insect can die within 3 to14 days depending on the active ingredient, mode of action, target pest, and the life stage.

Insect growth regulators decrease populations over time.

IGR Can have antifeeding action

Others affect egg, larval, nymphal, or pupal development.

While others inhibit metamorphosis and may negatively affect reproduction and egg viability.

IGR as potential insect control goes back to the 1956

IGRs generally control insects either through regulation of metamorphosis or interference with reproduction.

Compounds developed to disrupt metamorphosis ensure that no reproductive adults are formed.

Survivor adults may not be able to fly due to abnormal development in the wing

Larvae completed development within that instar but die the next instar due inadequate cuticle synthesis.

IGRs Interfere with reproduction may include the development of adults with certain morphogenetic abnormalities that reduce their reproductive potential.

Adults may be sterile or possess abnormally developed genitalia which hinders the mating process or the capacity to produce fertile offspring.

IGR are considered a third generation pesticide because its limited effects on humans animals and wildlife.

Environmental Concerns of IGRs

Chitin is a very important constituent of the cell walls of fungi and green algae

Crustaceans and a few other aquatic species are the endangered organisms sensitive to chitin synthesis inhibitor applications. This is because insects and crustaceans contain the same molting hormones.

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IGR Types and Uses

1)Juvenile hormone analogs & Mimics

Pyriproxyfen: Pivot and Tekko Distance for green houses
Methoprene: Altosid, Precoor does effects Arachnid

In Aedes aegypti, Methoprene blocks midgut metamorphosis and death during pupal stage.
Hydroprene Gentrol adversely affect Aphids

These IGR do not work on ticks becouse of the absence of insect juvenile hormones in the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis. See Chitin synthesis inhibitors and Ecdysone antagonists.

Juvenile hormone anolog are more effective

At the beginning stage of metamorphosis and embryogenesis when eggs are being formed.
In insects freshly ecdysed when during instars where they shed their old skins.
In last larval instars where freshly ecdysed pupal instars, and deposited eggs.
Embryogenesis is disrupted when young eggs are treated with Juvenile hormone anolog .

2) Molting hormone agonist

These Are Mostly For AG use
Chromafenozide, Halofenozide, Methoxyfenozide, Tebufenozide
Ecdysone agonists belonging to the bisacylhydrazine compounds that cause premature lethal molts. These compounds act as ovicides. Inhibited larval growth, delayed pupation, and decreased adult emergence.

3) Molting Inhibitor

Diofenolan PESTANAL
The polyoxins are structurally-related antibiotics like nikkomycins are inhibitors of the polymerizing enzyme chitin synthase. Such as translocation of chitin chains across the cell membrane.

4) Ecdysone antagonists

Azadirachtin Neemix
Ecdysone antagonists mimic ecdysone triggering ecdysone production forcing the insect to molt prematurely, which cease to feed and die.

5) Chitin synthesis inhibitors.

Etoxazole: Beethoven, TetraSan acaricide
Inhibits chitin biogenesis in Tetranychus urticae (the two-spotted spider mite).
Active ingredients ending in ron
Novaluron Tekko Pro, Trelona ATBS
Most Chitin synthesis inhibitors are primarily used as larvicides. Treated larvae develop until molting, but fail to ecdyse due to inhibition of the synthesis of new cuticle, specifically, chitin biosynthesis.
Are mostly used to control larva preventing them from producing an exoskeleton.

5 Studies on IGRS

Insect Growth Regulators for Insect Pest Control
http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/agriculture/issues/tar-04-28-6/tar-28-6-1-0309-5.pdf

Mechanisms of midgut remodeling: Juvenile hormone analog methoprene blocks midgut metamorphosis by modulating ecdysone action.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925477306000657

Population bulk segregant mapping uncovers resistance mutations and the mode of action of a chitin synthesis inhibitor in arthropods
http://www.pnas.org/content/109/12/4407.short

Larvicidal Activity of Novaluron, a Chitin Synthesis Inhibitor, Against the Housefly, Musca domestica.
http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1673/031.006.5001

IGR
http://www.ptrpest.com/pdf/igr.pdf

Metabolism and mode of action of juvenile hormone, juvenoids, and other insect growth regulators.
http://ucanr.edu/sites/hammocklab/files/125875.pdf

Endocrine regulation of development and reproduction in acarines
https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=MiS44PnVtCQC&oi=fnd&pg=PA91&dq=Dermacentor+variabilis+Ecdysone+antagonists&ots=OgLPFcBkvi&sig=O48p7M7Gc-4vDiO0awNUxDjnmQQ#v=onepage&q&f=false

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